Buddhism's Law of Causality and Karma (因果/業力觀): The fundamental mechanisms of "cause and effect" that drive all things, including circumstances, phenomena and even human emotions and perceptions in the Universe. The force driving the Law of Causality is invisible, has no origin, has no beginning and no end, and "is independent of being discovered". (See Footnote for more details and discussions)Taoism's concept of Tao/Dao (道): The Great Path (Tao, 道) refers to the "Ultimate Truth", "Ways of the world" or "Natural Order of the Universe" in classical Chinese. In Tao Te Ching (道德經) written by Laozi (老子), this Tao is so mysterious that words cannot describe it: if it is described, that description will fail to characterize the true nature of the unchanging Tao (道可道，非常道). Hence, Tao is invisible, mysterious, with unknown origin and cannot be completely comprehended with reason. Note that the invisible actions of Ying and Yang (陰陽, the so called "positive" and "negative" contrary forces) that drive Nature is part of the Tao.Christianity’s concept of a single omnipotent God: God is the ultimate power behind all things visible or otherwise; "I am the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end"(Revelation 22:13); "I am who I am"(Exodus 3:14); "one who knows all things, even that which the human mind could never know or finds incomprehensible"(6). God, therefore, has no origin, and God's ways are invisible, "divine mysteries", and not completely comprehensible by reasoning of the human mind.
I. One common criticism pose by many Christians to Buddhists is the Buddhist's concept of "nothingness (空)"; many Christians argue that such concept is nonsense since it rejects the very real existence of the Universe created by God, but such view is an incorrect interpretation of the Buddhist concept of "nothingness(空)". "Nothingness(空)" in Buddhism is merely used to describe that all things are always in an ever-changing state of flux (無常) and so there is nothing in the conceivable world that is constant and non-changing (常); hence, everything can be described to be in a state of "nothingness(空)". It does not certainly exclude existence, but rather exclude non-changing existence in our perceived world. Surprisingly, this concept is consistent with Christianity's concept of "Vanity(虛)" - "Vanity of vanity, all is vanity"(Ecclesiastes 1:2), wherein the Bible asserted that all things in the Universe are ever-changing, hence, illusionary, with God as the only one that is constant, not-changing, and hence represented the "real" truth. Note that traditional Buddhist philosophies do reject a conceivable God that is non-changing (常), but cannot and do not exclude the possibility of a non-changing God who is partially inconceivable, beyond our reasoning and comprehension. Ultimately, Buddhist philosophies do not stress on discussing entities that are beyond human comprehension as Buddhism is based on and limited by human reasoning. If asked whether a God beyond reasoning exists, a traditional Buddhist philosopher would have answered in the line of "I don't know. Our Laws neither confirm nor exclude the possibility; so no comment."II. One common criticism posed by many Buddhists to Christians is the notion of pre-determined fate: since God is all knowing, God already knows your destiny and so how can one have free will and be liberated? The flaw in this question is the assumption that we humans are living in the "same frame of reference" of God; God certainly knows our fate, but we do not know since we humbly do not possess and cannot comprehend God's wide realm of abilities. Hence, in our living frame of reference, it is absolutely possible that we do have free will, whereas in God's perspective (which we can never be able to fully grasp) we do not. This is akin to travelling in a train with a constant velocity with all windows covered: a passenger inside will instinctively believe that the train is at rest, while a person outside the train (in a different frame of reference relative to the passenger) will clearly see the train is moving; both phenomena are not contradictory, according to Laws of Physics regarding frame of references. Indeed, in our human frame of reference, as outlined in Genesis, God does grant us free will to choose at the very beginning of human history (as God allowed and respected Adam and Eve's decision to eat from the Tree of Knowledge), and free will is absolutely central in Christianity and our salvation ( "God created man a rational being, conferring on him the dignity of a person who can initiate and control his own actions. God willed that man should be 'left in the hand of his own counsel,' so that he might of his own accord seek his Creator and freely attain his full and blessed perfection by cleaving to him." - 9).
"Could God create a stone so heavy that even He could not lift it?"
1. If God can create such a stone, then God cannot lift it. As such, God is not omnipotent.2. If God cannot create such a stone, then it proves God's ability is limited. As such, God is not omnipotent.
Samyutta Nikaya: "When this exists, that comes to be. With the arising of this, that arises. When this does not exist, that does not come to be. With the cessation of this, that ceases.... This natural law of this/that causality is independent of being discovered, just like the laws of physics. In particular, the Buddha applied this law of causality to determine the cause of dukkha." (12)